Author Guidelines

The detailed instructions for authors are given below.


H2: Title

• Titles can be a maximum of 150 characters.


Example: Z. Hu1, L. Wang2, Y. Luo1,2†, Q. Wei*, M. Yan, L. Zhou, L. Mai

Authors (by first name, then middle initial (if any), followed by last name) should be mentioned in the order of contribution to the paper and separated by commas. The author list should be one single paragraph with no line breaks.


 Use superscript (a, b, c) to designate author affiliations. Use an asterisk (*) to identify the corresponding author, and be sure to include that corresponding author’s e-mail address. Use symbols (in this order: †, ‡, §, ||, ¶, #, ††, ‡‡, etc.) for author notes such as present addresses, “These authors contributed equally to this work” notations.


The abstract should be a single paragraph and it should have • An opening sentence mentioning the problem addressed by the research • Enough background to give context to the study • Brief statement of primary results • Brief conclusion



The manuscript should start with a brief introduction that lays out the problem addressed by the research and describes novelty and significance of the article.

H2: Materials and Methods

 The materials and methods section should provide sufficient information to allow replication of the results.

H2: Results

The results should describe the experiments performed and the findings observed.

• All data should be presented in the Results. No data should be presented for the first time in the Discussion.

• Subheadings must be either all complete sentences or all phrases. Subheadings should not end in a period.

• Figures and tables must be called out in numerical order. For example, the first mention of Fig. 5 cannot precede the first mention of all panels of Fig. 4. The supplementary figures (for example, Fig. S1) and tables (Table S1) must also be called out in numerical order. • Display equations should be numbered at the right - (1), (2), etc.

H2: Discussion

 Include a deep scientific discussion.

H2: Supplementary Materials

Supplementary Materials should be included as a separate file. If you have any Supplemental Materials please list them by sections in the following order: supplementary materials and methods (if any), supplementary figures, supplementary tables, and other supplementary files (such as movies, data, interactive images, or database files). Example:

Materials and Methods Fig. S1. Title of the first supplementary figure.

Fig. S2. Title of the second supplementary figure. Table S1. Title of the first supplementary table.

Data file S1. Title of the first supplementary data file.

Movie S1. Title of the first supplementary movie.

H2: References

There should be only one reference list for all sources cited in the main text, figure and table legends, and Supplementary Materials. Do not include a second reference list in the Supplementary Materials section. Each reference should have a separate number and should be on a separate line ending in a period.


Acknowledgments should include the following information in the order listed below, a single paragraph, starting with the word “Acknowledgments:” in bold. Please use the subhead and boldface layout as shown below.).

H3: General:

Thank others for any contributions.

H3: Funding:

Include all funding sources, including grant numbers and funding agencies.

H3: Author contributions:

Describe the contributions of each author (use initials) to the paper.

H3: Competing interests:

Include any financial interests of the authors that could be perceived as being a conflict of interest. If there are no competing interests, please state the same. H3: Data and materials availability: If data are in an archive, include the accession number or a placeholder for it. Also include any materials that must be obtained through an MTA. H2: Figures and Tables You should embed your figures and tables within the Word file, after the acknowledgments. This will facilitate evaluation of the paper. Each figure and table should have a legend. Indicate figure parts with bold capital letters: (A), (B), etc. Format tables using the Word Table commands and structures. Do not use spaces or tabs to create tables.

H2: Supplementary Materials

Supplementary Materials should be included as a separate file.