Sci. Adv. Today 2 (2016) 25245  
  Review Article  
   
   
         
Carbon nanostructures for oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions  
  Arun Prakash Periasamya, Settu Muralia, Ting-Rui Jiana and Huan-Tsung Changa,b  
     
a Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan
b Department of Chemistry, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli District, Taoyuan City, 32023, Taiwan

   
  Abstract  
  Advances in developing highly active and durable catalysts have made fuel cells as interesting sustainable energy devices. In this review, oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution activities of various carbon nanostructures (CNSs), including carbon nanodots (C-dots), multi-walled and single-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and SWCNTs), graphene, graphene quantum dots (GQDs), and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), in alkaline, acidic and neutral media are described. Strategies for enhancing the catalytic activity of CNSs towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are emphasized. The effects of size, morphology, surface properties, and heteroatom doping on the catalytic activity of CNSs are discussed. Multi-dimensional hybrid nanocomposites provide higher ORR and OER activities than their individual counterparts. Edge defects, hybrid interfaces, improved electronic features, and synergistic effects all play some roles in enhancing the catalytic activity of CNSs. Having high activity, low cost, and stability, CNSs are interesting catalysts in fuel cells.  
     
   
  Cite this article as:  
  Arun Prakash Periasamy, Settu Murali, Ting-Rui Jian and Huan-Tsung Chang, Carbon nanostructures for oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions, Sci. Adv. Today 2 (2016) 25245.