Sci. Adv. Today 3 (2017) 25270  
  Research Article  
   
   
         
Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles for sensitive and selective detection of palladium (Pd2+)  
  Sichen Zhanga, Xiangcheng Sunb, Jun Chena, Xiaoyu Maa, Yupeng Wuc and Yu Leid  
     
a Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
b Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
c Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK
d Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA

   
  Abstract  
  Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) in aqueous solution were synthesized using citric acid and polyethylenimine as precursors through a modified microwave-assisted method and then applied for highly sensitive and selective Pd2+ detection. The as-synthesized fluorescent CNPs exhibited good water solubility and photo-stability. The CNPs were systematically characterized using various advanced techniques and the fluorescence study on the as-prepared CNPs showed the excitation-dependent emission properties. Finally, the as-synthesized carbon nanoparticles served as a promising fluorescent probe for Pd2+ sensing. The sensitivity for Pd2+ detection were investigated by fluorescence quenching titrations, while the selectivity was studied by comparing the response to various metal ions. The results show that besides the excellent selectivity to Pd2+ against other metal ions, the limit of detection to Pd2+ could reach as low as 12.4 nM, which is much lower than the threshold concentration limit of Pd2+ in medicine and environmental samples. These findings here indicate that the as-prepared CNPs hold great promise as a low-cost sensing material for sensitive and selective detection of palladium in aqueous samples.  
     
   
  Cite this article as:  
  Sichen Zhang, Xiangcheng Sun, Jun Chen, Xiaoyu Ma, Yupeng Wu and Yu Lei, Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles for sensitive and selective detection of palladium (Pd2+), Sci. Adv. Today 3 (2017) 25270.